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UN SECOLO DI INTERVENTI MILITARI USA
da Wounded Knee all'Afghanistan

by Zoltan Grossman (aggiornato al 09/20/01)

La spesa militare USA (343miliardi di dollari nel 2000) è del 69 % maggiore di quella delle 5 nazioni più grandi dopo gli USA. La Russia, che ha il secondo maggiore budget militare, spende meno di un sesto degli Stati Uniti. Iraq, Libya, North Korea, Cuba, Sudan, Iran, e Syria spendono 14.4 miliardi di dollari tutte insieme; combined; l'Iran spende il 52% di questa somma.
La seguente è una lista parziale degli interventi militari USA dal 1890 al 199. Questa sintesi non include gli interventi della polizia militare, le mobilitazioni della Guardia Nazionale, le dimostrazioni di forza navale, gli incrementi del personale dele ambasciate, l'uso di militari esterni al Dipartimento della Difesa (come la DEA), le esercitazioni militari, le mobilitazioni non belliche (come il rimpiazzo nei casi di scioperi postali), le basi permanenti delle forze armate, le azioni segrete non comandate dagli USA, l'uso di unità per il recupero di ostaggi, ecc. ecc.

Le fonti usate, oltre ai giornali, citiamo il Registro del Congresso (23 Giugno 1969), "180 atterraggi" della Divisione Storia del Corpo dei Marines, e "Instances of Use of United States Forces Abroad, 1798-1993" di Ellen C. Collier odel Servizio Ricerche della Libreria del Congresso.

Invio di forze terrestri e/o navali
SOUTH DAKOTA 1890 (-?)
300 Lakota Indians massacred at Wounded Knee.

ARGENTINA 1890
Buenos Aires interests protected.

CHILE 1891
Marines clash with nationalist rebels.

HAITI 1891

Black workers revolt on U.S.-claimed Navassa Island defeated.

IDAHO 1892
Army suppresses silver miners' strike.

HAWAII 1893 (-?)
Independent kingdom overthrown, annexed.

CHICAGO 1894
Breaking of rail strike, 34 killed.

NICARAGUA 1894
Month-long occupation of Bluefields.

CHINA 1894-95
Marines land in Sino-Japanese War.

KOREA 1894-96
Marines kept in Seoul during war.

PANAMA 1895
Marines land in Colombian province.

NICARAGUA
1896
Troops
Marines land in port of Corinto.

CHINA 1898-1900

Boxer Rebellion fought by foreign armies.

PHILIPPINES 1898-1910(-?)
Seized from Spain, killed
600,000 Filipinos.

CUBA 1898-1902(-?)
Seized from Spain, still hold Navy
base.

PUERTO RICO 1898(-?)
Seized from Spain, occupation
continues.

GUAM 1898(-?)

Seized from Spain, still use as base.

MINNESOTA 1898(-?)
Army battles Chippewa at Leech Lake.

NICARAGUA 1898
Marines land at port of San Juan del Sur.

SAMOA 1899(-?)
Battle over succession to throne.

NICARAGUA 1899
Marines land at port of Bluefields.

IDAHO 1899-1901

Army occupies Coeur d'Alene mining region.

OKLAHOMA 1901

Army battles Creek Indian revolt.

PANAMA 1901-14

Broke off from Colombia 1903, annexed Canal Zone 1914-99.

HONDURAS 1903
Marines intervene in revolution.

DOMINICAN REP. 1903-04
U.S. interests protected in Revolution.

KOREA 1904-05
Marines land in Russo-Japanese War.

CUBA 1906-09
Marines land in democratic election.

NICARAGUA 1907
"Dollar Diplomacy" protectorate set up.

HONDURAS 1907
Marines land during war with Nicaragua.

PANAMA 1908
Marines intervene in election contest.

NICARAGUA 1910
Marines land in Bluefields and Corinto.

HONDURAS 1911
U.S. interests protected in civil war.

CHINA 1911-41
Continuous occupation with flare-ups.

CUBA 1912
U.S. interests protected in Havana.

PANAMA 19l2
Marines land during heated election.

HONDURAS 19l2
Marines protect U.S. economic interests.

NICARAGUA 1912-33
20-year occupation, fought guerrillas.

MEXICO 19l3
Americans evacuated during revolution.

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 1914
Fight with rebels over Santo Domingo.

COLORADO 1914
Breaking of miners' strike by Army.

MEXICO 1914-18
Series of interventions against
nationalists.

HAITI 1914-34
19-year occupation after revolts.

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 1916-24
8-year Marine occupation.

CUBA 1917-33
Military occupation, economic protectorate.

WORLD WAR I 19l7-18
Naval, troops
Ships sunk, fought Germany 

RUSSIA 1918-22
Five landings to fight Bolsheviks.

PANAMA 1918-20
"Police duty" during unrest after elections.

HONDURAS 1919
Marines land during election campaign.

GUATEMALA 1920
2-week intervention against unionists.

WEST VIRGINIA 1920-21
Army intervenes against
mineworkers.

TURKEY 1922

Fought nationalists in Smyrna (Izmir).

CHINA 1922-27
Deployment during nationalist revolt.

HONDURAS 1924-25
Landed twice during election strife.

PANAMA 1925
Marines suppress general strike.

CHINA 1927-34
Marines stationed throughout the country.

EL SALVADOR 1932
Warships sent during Faribundo Marti revolt.

WASHINGTON DC 1932
Army stops WWI vet bonus protest.

WORLD WAR II 1941-45
Naval,troops, bombing, nuclear
Fought Axis for 3
years; 1st nuclear war.

DETROIT 1943
Army puts down Black rebellion.

IRAN 1946
Nuclear threat
Soviet troops told to leave north (Iranian Azerbaijan).

YUGOSLAVIA 1946
Response to shooting-down of U.S. plane.

URUGUAY 1947
Nuclear threat
Bombers deployed as show of strength.

GREECE 1947-49
Command operation
U.S. directs extreme-right in civil
war.

GERMANY 1948
Nuclear threat
Atomic-capable bombers guard Berlin Airlift.

PHILIPPINES 1948-54
Command operation
CIA directs war against Huk
Rebellion.

PUERTO RICO 1950
Command operation
Independence rebellion crushed inPonce.

KOREA 1950-53
Troops, naval, bombing, nuclear threats U.S.& South Korea fight China & North Korea to stalemate; A-bomb threat in 1950, & vs. China in 1953. Still have bases.

IRAN 1953
Command operation
CIA overthrows democracy, installs Shah.

VIETNAM 1954
Nuclear threat
Bombs offered to French to use against siege.

GUATEMALA 1954
Command operation, bombing, nuclear threat CIA directs exile invasion after new gov't nationalizes U.S. company lands; bombers based in Nicaragua.

EGYPT 1956
Nuclear threat, troops
Soviets told to keep out of Suez crisis; Marines evacuate foreigners

LEBANON 1958
Troops, naval
Marine occupation against rebels.

IRAQ 1958
Nuclear threat
Iraq warned against invading Kuwait.

CHINA 1958
Nuclear threat
China told not to move on Taiwan isles.

PANAMA 1958
Troops
Flag protests erupt into confrontation.

VIETNAM 1960-75
Troops, naval, bombing, nuclear threats Fought South Vietnam revolt & North Vietnam; 1-2 million killed in longest U.S. war; atomic bomb threats in 1968 and 1969.

CUBA 1961
Command operation CIA-directed exile invasion fails.

GERMANY 1961
Nuclear threat Alert during Berlin Wall crisis.

CUBA 1962
Nuclear threat
Naval
Blockade during missile crisis; near-war with USSR.

LAOS 1962
Command operation
Military buildup during guerrilla war.

PANAMA 1964
Troops
Panamanians shot for urging canal's return.

INDONESIA 1965
Command operation Million killed in CIA-assisted army coup.

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 1965-66
Troops, bombing Marines land during election campaign.

GUATEMALA 1966-67
Command operation Green Berets intervene against rebels.

DETROIT 1967
Troops
Army battles Blacks, 43 killed.

UNITED STATES 1968
Troops
After King is shot; over 21,000 soldiers in cities.

CAMBODIA 1969-75
Bombing, troops, naval Up to 2 million killed in decade of  bombing, starvation, and political chaos.

OMAN 1970
Command operation U.S. directs Iranian marine invasion.

LAOS 1971-73
Command operation, bombing U.S. directs South Vietnamese invasion; "carpet-bombs" countryside.

SOUTH DAKOTA 1973
Command operation Army directs Wounded Knee siege of Lakotas.

MIDEAST 1973
Nuclear threat World-wide alert during Mideast War.

CHILE 1973
Command operation CIA-backed coup ousts elected marxist president.

CAMBODIA 1975
Troops, bombing Gas captured ship, 28 die in copter crash.

ANGOLA 1976-92
Command operation CIA assists South African-backed rebels.

IRAN 1980
Troops, nuclear threat, aborted bombing Raid to rescue Embassy hostages;  8 troops die in copter-plane crash. Soviets warned not to get involved in revolution.

LIBYA 1981
Naval jets Two Libyan jets shot down in maneuvers. 

EL SALVADOR 1981-92
Command operation, troops Advisors, overflights aid anti-rebel war, soldiers briefly involved in hostage clash.

NICARAGUA 1981-90
Command operation, naval CIA directs exile (Contra) invasions,  plants harbor mines against revolution.

LEBANON 1982-84
Naval, bombing, troops Marines expel PLO and back Phalangists,  Navy bombs and shells Muslim and Syrian positions.

HONDURAS 1983-89
Troops
Maneuvers help build bases near borders.

GRENADA 1983-84
Troops, bombing Invasion four years after revolution.

LIBYA 1986
Bombing, naval Air strikes to topple nationalist gov't.

BOLIVIA 1986
Troops Army assists raids on cocaine region. 

IRAN 1987-88
Naval, bombing US intervenes on side of Iraq in war.

LIBYA 1989
Naval jets Two Libyan jets shot down.

VIRGIN ISLANDS 1989
Troops
St. Croix Black unrest after storm.

PHILIPPINES 1989
Jets
Air cover provided for government against coup.

PANAMA 1989-90
Troops, bombing
Nationalist government ousted by 27,000 soldiers, leaders arrested, 2000+ killed.

LIBERIA 1990
Troops
Foreigners evacuated during civil war.

SAUDI ARABIA 1990-91
Troops, jets Iraq countered after invading Kuwait; 540,000 troops also stationed in Oman, Qatar, Bahrain, UAE, Israel.

IRAQ 1990-?
Bombing, troops, naval Blockade of Iraqi and Jordanian ports, air strikes; 200,000+ killed in invasion of Iraq and Kuwait; no-fly zone over Kurdish north, Shiite south,   large-scale destruction of Iraqi military.

KUWAIT 1991
Naval, bombing, troops Kuwait royal family returned to throne.

LOS ANGELES 1992
Troops
Army, Marines deployed against anti-police uprising.

SOMALIA 1992-94
Troops, naval, bombing U.S.-led United Nations occupation during civil war; raids against one Mogadishu faction.

YUGOSLAVIA 1992-94
Naval
Nato blockade of Serbia and Montenegro.

BOSNIA 1993-95
Jets, bombing No-fly zone patrolled in civil war; downed jets, bombed Serbs.

HAITI 1994-96
Troops, naval
Blockade against military government; troops restore President Aristide to office three years after coup.

ZAIRE (CONGO) 1996-97
Troops
Marines at Rwandan Hutu refuge camps, in area where Congo revolution begins.

LIBERIA 1997
Troops
Soldiers under fire during evacuation of foreigners.

ALBANIA 1997
Troops
Soldiers under fire during evacuation of foreigners.

SUDAN 1998
Missiles
Attack on pharmaceutical plant alleged to be "terrorist" nerve gas plant.

AFGHANISTAN 1998
Missiles
Attack on former CIA training camps used by Islamic fundamentalist groups alleged to have attacked embassies.

IRAQ 1998-?
Bombing, Missiles
Four days of intensive air strikes after weapons inspectors allege Iraqi obstructions.

YUGOSLAVIA 1999-?
Bombing, Missiles
Heavy NATO air strikes after Serbia declines to withdraw from Kosovo.

YEMEN 2000
Naval
Suicide bomb attack on USS Cole.

MACEDONIA 2001
Troops
NATO troops shift and partially disarm Albanian rebels.

UNITED STATES 2001
Jets, naval
Response to hijacking attacks.

AFGHANISTAN 2001
Massive U.S. mobilization to attack Taliban, Bin Laden. War could expand to Iraq, Sudan, and beyond.



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