Group Mandala -Description of a Group Dynamics Exercise (James Neill)
Equipment: Each group member to select one personal object or an object from nature, to represent themselves
Time: ~30-40 minutes
Acknowledgements: This exercise has been adapted from an exercise facilitated by Chris Loynes at the 10th National Outdoor Education Conference, 1997, in Perth, Western Australia and subsequent personal advice (see links). Chris attributes his learning of the learning to Roger Greenaway who provided me with some excellent information about a similar activity he calls Stones and a related activity called Human Sculpture (see links).
Psychodynamics & Personal Objects: My intention in developing this particular adaptation was to use it in an outdoor education graduate seminar class to facilitate within group communication and interpersonal understanding, and to stimulate discussion about psychodynamic theory in outdoor education settings.
The most obvious psychodynamic principle at work is the notion of "projection", although this is a psychologically complex activity that is likely to elicit several other observable psychodynamic processes (such as ego states and interpersonal transactions). The group had in the previous week been introduced to background readings about psychodynamic theory and had been challenged to think about possible ways this theory might be seen at applicable to outdoor education.
Students were requested to bring a small, non-fragile object of personal significance to the class. Note that the selection of personal objects of significance for the exercise is likely to bring into play the history of psychological association and meaning that individuals have attached and invested the object with. Thus the decision to include these objects immediately heightens the level of psychological investment in the activity. That comes with associated risks and liabilities of course, so I would be hesitant to recommend this part of the activity lightly. It can make for a weightier and more sobered session than might be the case when using readily available objects in the immediate environment.
Surprisingly little has been written in the psychological literature about the psychology of objects. Probably the key text is still Jungs Man and His Symbols, along with a relatively recent book by Csikszentmihalyi and Rochberg-Halton, The meaning of things: Domestic symbols and the self in which they state in the preface:
To understand what people are and what they might become, one must understand what goes on between people and things. What things are cherished, and why, should become part of our knowledge of human beings. Yet it is surprising how little we know about what things mean to people. By and large social scientists have neglected a full investigation of the relationship between people and objects.
Roger Greenaway made a useful suggestion here that
it may be tricky to move from here to group dynamics if, say, someone brings a photo of their boyfriend, another a family photograph, another a tiny piece of jewellery, another a goldfish in a jar ... So each person may like to have the option of choosing a new object when switching into group dynamics that is more representative of their image or role within the group.
Before the activity, I gave the group the extra instruction that their object would be subject to group activity and that they would lose a certain amount of control over their object so if they wished they should select an alternative object for the group activity. No-one took up the offer (to my knowledge) although a couple of people had forgotten to bring an object, so just used something they had handy.
What is a Mandala?:
Mandala is Sanskrit for circle, polygon, community, and connection. The The Concise Macquarie Dictionary defines mandala as
a mystic symbol of the universe, in the form of a circle enclosing a square; used chiefly by the Hindus and Buddhists as an aid to meditation,
but my experience of mandalas is that there are not so narrowly definable. A quick search on the internet using the term mandala reveals many traditional and contemporary mandala designs which go well beyond a circle enclosing a square. What seems to tie them altogether is their patterned interconnectedness. I didnt share my title for the activity with the students, I left it nameless, but for me the notion of mandala serves as a reminder of the intricate patterns and interconnectedness, both conscious and unconscious, that seems to form even in the most rudimentary of group structures.
Participants in a group select a small object. The object can be anything, from anywhere: e.g., an object of personal significance or collected from the outdoors
1. Standing in a circle, ask a participant for their hat (or some other container).
Place your object in the hat, and pass the hat on to the next person who does the same.
2. Caste the objects, with some care, some randomness (like rolling dice) (may use casting mat, e.g., a sarong or coat, particularly if using personally significant objects)
3. Ask people to look at the objects and then take turns sharing how they feel about the place of their object in relation to the other objects in the group.
4. One-by-one then go around in a circle and move your object to a new position that feels more comfortable and explain why.
5. Ask the group to discuss and create the ideal arrangement of their objects.
6. What do you think of this activity? Discussion.
7. Can you see what happened in this group during this activity from a Psychodynamic perspective?
Note: The facilitator should consider his/her role in the group and whether or not to participate.
Participants brought a surprising variety of objects, including an engagement ring, a pocket knife, a stone bearing the inscription inspiration, a teddy bear, necklaces and rings, trinkets, and so on. I intentionally did not ask students to initially describe the significance of their objects not doing this seems to heighten the sense of mystery and suspense in the activity. Interestingly, by the end of the activity, the students responded to an earlier suggestion Id made that we might close the activity by sharing with others the personal significance associated with the object. This provided a deep, but satisfying sense of closing to the activity.
Overall, the exercise worked well, but was a challenge initially to process as there was some resistance and anxiety associated with the apparent open-endedness of the activity.
At a critical point when a student challenged me
on the seeming pointlessness of the activity I responded that from
a psychodynamic point of view, the ultimate activity is give someone
a blank piece of paper and ask them what they see. Whatever
they replied would be an indicator of their inner psychological
state, because there is little in the paper to see and respond to.
When we give people complex activities, it becomes difficult to
distinguish what parts are to do with the person and what parts
are due to the nature and structure of the activity itself.
Thus, I suggested, it is the very open-endedness of the activity
which is the point of the exercise from a psychodynamic point of
view. This comment appeared to serve as a catalyst to
help guide the student discussions behind the immediate details
of the activity and more or less from this point they were able
to make many interesting connections and insights to psychology
and outdoor education.
From Chris Loynes
1. Place the objects in the hat - or whatever-
and scatter them. What's going on in this group?
From Roger Greenaway
There's many dimensions to this - starting with where the exercise came from and how different people have developed it. There is no correct way of doing this exercise. What I can tell you about is some of my own experiences of using it, and then I'll respond to your specific questions about using it with your group.
I remember trying out this exercise when I was at Brathay on hearing someone suggest arranging objects to represent group dynamics. I usually call it ''stones''. The most basic version is described on my website as part of my reviewing cycle tutorial (start at Facts and go round clockwise). A more detailed description is in the 'stones' file on the website: http://www.reviewing.co.uk/learning-cycle/stones-group-dynamics.htm