perceive that they need each other in order to complete
the group's task ("sink or swim together"). Teachers may
structure positive interdependence by establishing mutual
goals (Learn and make sure all other group members learn),
joint reward (if all group members achieve above the criteria,
each will receive bonus points), shared resources (one
paper for each group or each member receives part of the
required information), and assigned roles (summarizer,
encourager of participation, elaborator).
Face-to-Face Promotive Interaction
promote each other's learning by helping, sharing, and
encouraging efforts to learn. Students explain, discuss,
and teach what they know to classmates. Teachers structure
the groups so that students sit knee-to-knee and talk
through each aspect of the assignment.
performance is frequently assessed and the results are
given to the group and the individual. Teachers may structure
individual accountability by giving an individual test
to each student or randomly selecting one group member
to give the answer.
Interpersonal and Small Group
function effectively if students do not have and use the
needed social skills. Teachers teach these skills as purposefully
and precisely as academic skills. Collaborative
and cooperative skills include leadership, decision-making,
trust-building, communication, and conflict-management
specific time to discuss how well they are achieving their
goals and maintaining effective working relationships
among members. Teachers structure group processing by
assigning such tasks as (a) list at least three members
actions that helped the group be successful and (b) list
one action that could be added to make the group more
successful tomorrow. Teachers also monitor the groups
and give feedback on how well the groups are working together
to the groups and the class as a whole.
Johnson, D.W. and Johnson, R. (1989) Cooperation and Competition.
Edina, MN: Interaction Book Co.