Jung and Myers Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI)
the early 1900s, Carl Jung established a field identifying distinct
personality patterns. Many theorists have since broken these
patterns into categories attempting to make them easier to understand.
Carl Jung was a contemporary of Sigmund Freud and a leading
exponent of Gestalt personality theory. Jung developed a ground-breaking
personality theory that introduced two attitudes - extraversion
and introversion (1933a). Later he described human behavior
as a combination of four psychic functions - thinking/feeling
and intuition/sensation (1933b). Thinking and feeling are said
to be rational functions because they both require acts of judgments.
Sensation and intuition involve immediate experiences. The MBTI,
Kolb's Learning Style Inventory, Managerial
Grid, and a number of other instruments all use a form
of extraversion/introversion. His four other functions are also
closely tied with these instruments.
most widely used personality survey instrument is the Myers
Briggs Type Indicator (MBTI), followed closely by the DiSC assessment
(Carlson Learning). The MBTI can be an aid in understanding
the individual differences. This is why it is more complicated
than the other models discussed here, since they are strictly
learning models why the MBTI is a personality model. However,
our personality does play an important part in determining our
learning style. And it does tie in within the other models so
we will discuss its part in the the learning process.
obtained from the MBTI indicate a person's preference on each
of four dichotomous dimensions:
Extroversion (E) versus Introversion (I)
indicates whether a learner prefers to direct attention towards
the external world of people and things or toward the internal
world of concepts and ideas. This preference tells us from where
people get their energy.
find energy in the inner world of ideas, concepts, and abstractions.
They can be sociable but need tranquility to regain their energy.
They want to understand the world; they concentrate and the
tend to be reflective thinkers. They think more than talk. Introverted
learners want to develop frameworks that integrate or connect
the information that they learn, this becomes knowledge is the
interconnection of the material and to see a global view.
Sensing (S) versus iNtuition (N)
Extroverts find energy in things and people. They prefer interaction
with others, and tend to be action-oriented. They also tend
to think on their feet. They talk more than listen. Extroverted
learners learn by teaching others. They do not normally understand
the subject until they try to explain it to themselves or others
(working in groups). Problem Based Learning and Collaborative
Learning are good teaching techniques for this group.
indicates whether a learner prefers to perceive the world by
directly observing the surrounding reality or through impressions
and imagining possibilities.
people choose to rely on their five senses. They are detail-oriented,
they want facts, and they trust them. Sensing learners prefer
organized, linear, and structured lectures (systematic instruction
or step-by-step learning).
people seek out patterns and relationships among the facts they
have gathered. They trust hunches ("sixth" sense) and their
intuition and look for the "big picture." They also value imagination
and innovation. Intuitive learners prefer various forms of discovery
learning and must have the big picture (metaphors and analogies),
or an integrating framework in order to understand a subject.
They like concept maps or and often compare and contrast tables.
Thinking (T) versus Feeling (F)
indicates how the learner makes decisions, either through logic
or by using fairness and human values.
decide things impersonally based on analysis, logic, and principle.
They value fairness - focusing on the situation's logic, and
placing great weight on objective criteria in making a decision.
They naturally see flaws and tend to be critical. Thinking learners
prefer clear goal and objectives. They want to see precise,
action-oriented cognitive, affective and psychomotor objective.
They also want to know what they have to do to learn the material.
value harmony by focusing on human values. They focus on human
values and needs as they make decisions or arrive at judgments.
They tend to be good at persuasion and facilitating differences
among group members. They value empathy and harmony. Feeling
learners enjoy the small group exercises, especially harmonious
Judging (J) versus Perceptive (P)
indicates how the learner views the world, either as a structured
and planned environment or as a spontaneous environment.
people are decisive, self-starters and self-regimented. They
also focus on completing the task, knowing the essentials, and
they take action quickly. They plan their work and work their
plan. Deadlines are sacred as they see time as a finite resource.
Judging learners need tools that help them to plan their work
and work their plan. They want guides that give quick tips.
They can be encouraged by offering self-improvement.
learners are curious, adaptable, and spontaneous. They start
many tasks, want to know everything about each task, and often
find it difficult to complete a task. Deadlines are meant to
be stretched while more information is gathered as they see
time as a renewable resource. They like to leave their options
open. Perceptive learners often postpone doing an assignment
until the last minute. They are not lazy, they are merely seeking
information up to the very last minute. Breaking down a complex
project into a series of sub-assignments and providing deadlines
will keep perceptive learners on target. Also they are often
process oriented (emphasis is on how the task is completed)
and will easily adapt as long as they know the how.
MBTI model would have two dimensions - height and width, similar
to Kolb's and other
models, but it would also a third dimension - depth. Extroversion/Introversion
would be on the horizontal axis, while Feeling/Thinking would
be on the vertical axis. This is represented by the model below.
depth (third dimension) of Extroversion/Introversion (EI) would
be Judging/Perceptive (JP). This might be thought of as how
much time (JP) we are willing to stick to a task (EI) rather
it be actively engaging in it or reflecting on it.
depth (third dimension) of Feeling/Thinking (FT) would be Sensing/iNtuition
(SN). This might be thought of as using our various senses,
to include our "sixth sense" (SN) when thinking or feeling (FT)
about a subject.