for education in uncertain times
Maureen O'Hara Ph.D,
Saybrook Graduate School (Fonte)
"Maybe the time has come in our civilization
for a period of creative suspension. True creativity appears when we
stay within the tension of a question or an issue and do not rush to
assuage our insecurity with easy solutions. We are all essential parts
of this modern world and must exercise our collective creativity to
discover orders beyond, new forms of action and exercise our ability
to hold a variety of viewpoints in creative tension and mutual respect."
"The sign of an educated man is one who
can hold two contradictory ideas in mind at the same time and continue
to function." F. Scott Fitzgerald.
"I believe we'll need a revolution. We
need a mindset change if we are to attain a just and sustainable future.
And the revolution must be in our thinking. As Einstein has said, "We
cannot solve the problems of today at the level of thinking at which
they were first created." Another way of saying it is what one
of my psychologist friends said, "Insanity is doing the same thing
over and over again and expecting a different result." Jean-Lou
Chameau, Dean of Engineering at Georgia Institute of Technology has
said, "We need to change the mindsets not just the problem sets"
. Anthony D. Cortese
"An educated person has the ability to
appreciate, learn from, and embrace contradiction, even when we might
prefer closure." Peter Salovey.
We are living in a period when foundational givens of thought are
on the move and when the cosmology that has framed experience in Western
societies is unraveling. This is creating a shift in our understanding
of reality so fundamental that it undermines many of the bedrock assumptions
on which Western consciousness is based.
After an almost 500 year march from medievalism to modernism, during
which time we in the West have addressed our desires for knowledge and
eased our existential anxieties through a variously titrated mixture
of metaphysics, superstition, natural science, alchemy, theory, and
practical knowledge, the world is changing so fast around us that our
minds cannot keep up.
It is hard to overemphasize the implications for knowledge in the
conceptual revolution that is underway. In the sciences and technology,
this shift from a world of Newtonian certainty and predictability to
one of quantum uncertainty and chaotic unpredictability comes largely
as the logical consequence of discoveries in theoretical physics at
the opening of the 20 th century and to the development of the mathematics
of non-linear systems in 1950s. Taken together these intellectual developments
represent a fundamental shift in our way of understanding the world,
and as, Peat says, "puts an end to that Enlightenment dream of conquering
the world through pure reason."(Peat, 2005.p.5) It also reopens the
possibility of dimensions of realities not apprehensible through rationality
There are many ways to think about this great unraveling, with significant
implications for scientific research, ethics and philosophy of science,
for instance. I would like to explore it as a psychological event-and
discuss the simultaneous danger of mental distress and opportunity for
consciousness breakthrough or growth. Further, I would like to propose
some steps that those of us in the knowledge business-whether inside
the academy or outside- might take to avoid possible cultural and psychological
meltdown, and instead to enhance the likelihood that humanity will find
ways to embrace the learning opportunity offered by its collective existential
predicament and cultivate the necessary capacities of mind to live well
in an unavoidably uncertain world.
The missing elephant
In the familiar Sufi tale of the blind people groping to try to understand
what they have in hand, the point of the story is that the blind seekers
can transcend their own partial knowledge and understand the totality
of the elephant-the mysterious whole-only if they recognize the partiality
of their view point, and can pool their various local knowledge of the
parts towards an understanding of the whole. The story presupposes,
however, that there is a position-that of the story teller-from where
it is possible to know the whole. Furthermore it presupposes that there
is already a whole to be known. For reasons much more situational than
ontological, we now face a world where as Donald N. Michael once observed,
the elephant is missing (Michael 1999) . Or more accurately, there are
an infinite number of elephants, chickens, spirits, rainbows, concepts,
music--potential patterns to be recognized or produced, each an emergent
phenomenon of particular participant-subject relationships. And furthermore,
the cosmos may well be more vast than we can ever really know.
Lost at sea
No matter the issue-global warming, terrorism, famine, avian flu,
the nature of love, the location of a housing development, the existence
of being after death or care of aged, once you begin to include into
your thinking all the information that could potentially illuminate
your subject, you find you must look at technology, science, sociology,
folk lore, religion, psychology, anthropology, media, personalities,
politics, big picture, up close, history, current events, future predictions
and so on out into an ever expanding universe of relevance. Before you
know it, you are awash in a sea of information where the more you learn
the less you understand. And despite the availability of sophisticated
data- mining techniques and ever more intelligent search engines, the
sheer volume of information-good, bad and ugly-coming at us from everywhere,
at accelerating speed, in different languages, epistemologies, assumptive
frames --sometimes contradictory, sometimes complementary-means that
even if we had the most super-duper pattern-recognizing-mega-computers
and data-mining techniques with which to process it, we could no longer
hope to separate signal from noise to make the kind of sense we used
to refer to as truth.
We experience information overload, yet at the same time there is
a widening realization of how much we don’t know. We need information
to understand our information, we don’t agree on priorities, discipline,
epistemology, metaphysics, metaphors, values. Is global warming a technical
problem, moral problem, or a social psychological problem-or no problem
at all-and who decides? How much of the context do we include-too much
and the signal disappears, too little and we can’t join up the
dots-in either case, we miss 9/11, and so on. Just a few years ago,
the favorite metaphor for life in the age of hyper-rapid information
flow was "white water rafting." Increasingly it is "lost at sea."
Uncertainty as the new existential given
Such a world is a fundamentally uncertain world. Gone for ever is
the security that for every question there is a single simple answer-even
one, as Mencken quipped, that is wrong. Our relentless search for new
answers is itself a source of new ignorance, undermining old certainties
at the same time as it creates new ones, only to have them disintegrate
in turn in the face of new knowledge. Our irrepressible curiosity has
brought us finally to a place where we can no longer hope to comprehend
our world as a whole and to where we no longer have a basis to trust
what we once trusted. Should we trust science for instance? Our doctor?
Priest? Tarot reader? Fox News? Al Jazeera? Dreams? Intuition? Logic?
Wikipedia? Me? And if so, why?
Cultural psychologist Richard Shweder has observed that stable communities
derive their stability in part from a shared "cosmology",
(or "grand narrative") which coherently and convincingly explains to
their inhabitants why things are the way they are (Shweder and Bourne
1982) . This cosmology includes the interpenetrated and culturally embedded
stories, symbols, language, metaphors, beliefs, epistemologies, morality,
view of reality, cognitive and emotional routines that make any particular
culture. It defines what is sane and what is crazy, what is mature,
smart, foolish, good, evil, beautiful, worth striving for, worth living
for, worth dying for, is the right way to think, perceive, feel and
act. It is the role of the socializing institutions-schools, families,
churches, governments, media-to inculcate these ideas and values into
the population. When the cultural consensus breaks down, societies and
the individuals in them come unglued.
A shift in cosmology on a scale implied by the end of the Enlightenment
dream, taken together with an awareness brought to us by ever present
global media, that our cosmology is actually just one of any number
of reasonable stories to live by, is highly destabilizing. In the emerging
global context , where previously trusted authorities and sources of
knowledge, must compete in the information marketplace with literally
countless others, we are left with radical uncertainty not only as a
theoretical reality, or as a technological limitation, but as an existential
reality. For a great many of us, this presents us with a serious
psychological challenge. As any psychotherapist can attest, an existential
challenge can be both threat and opportunity; a source of anxiety and
defeat or a spur to transformational learning.
Peat (2005) argues that the fundamental complexity and uncertainty
of our times requires us to understand that, "we are all essential
parts of this modern world and must exercise our collective creativity
to discover orders beyond, new forms of action and exercise our ability
to hold a variety of viewpoints in creative tension and mutual respect."
If he is right, and I think he is, we must ask if we are psychologically
prepared for such a task and if we are not, what can and must we do
to become so.
As a clinical psychologist and educator, my look at the evidence suggests
that while some small percentage of us may have achieved the level of
psychological development implied in Peat’s statement-which is
actually pretty sophisticated-most of us have not and by a long way.
We are mostly over our heads, where many of the challenges we face every
day require levels of consciousness, habits of mind, and ways of being
that are beyond the level of psychological development at which most
people are operating. (Kegan 1994) .
And I think the evidence suggests that a great many of us are not
all coping well with being out of our depth. It is generally accepted
in world health circles, for instance, that we are experiencing a global
mental health pandemic. The World Health Organisation reports of 2001
and 2002 reveal mounting evidence of the global burden of psychological
distress and violence. WHO suggests that by 2020, depression will be
second only to heart disease as a source of illness in the world (2001;
Organization 2001; 2002) . This shows up in individuals in symptoms
of anxiety and depression, self-destructive and violent behavior and
it shows up in communities as marginalization, alienation, hopelessness
and extremism. Though much of this is due to such factors as war, poverty
and other problems, even in advanced and economically privileged societies,
mental illness is on the rise. At the level of nations the unraveling
shows up as failing states, civil war and repressive regimes (Hannah,
The Nuffield Trust : UK review of policy futures for health examined
the deterioration in "the social context for healthy living", pointing
out how stretched people feel when there is "no time for life, no partner
for life, no job for life." (1999) In the U.S. the 9/11 Commission
Report, sees people turning to fundamentalism as a source of stability
in a world in which many have lost their bearings (National Commission
on Terrorist Attacks Against the United States, 2004). The report notes
Osama Bin Ladin’s appeal to "people disoriented by cyclonic change
as they confront modernity and globalisation". Palestinian psychiatrist
and human rights activist Eyad Sarraj, describes the evolution of what
he calls "a paranoid culture" in the Middle East, where older cultural
coherence was destroyed by colonial actions in the region and nothing
coherent replaces it (Interview with Tikkun Magazine, February, 2005).
In its Readiness for the Future Index of 2001 the World Economic
Forum states that "social harmony" in a nation is necessary for sustainable
competitiveness, but notes that this is deteriorating in many countries
(World Economic Forum, 2001).
Perhaps, we should not be surprised about how unprepared we are for
the new context of complexity and uncertainty in which we find ourselves.
After all, in the West, socializing institutions, especially our educational
institutions are still mostly designed with the Enlightenment dream
in mind. For all the usual reasons-entrenched interests, bureaucratic
inertia, established hierarchies, revered tradition, ideology, and so
on, the educational establishment has been highly resistant to fundamental
change in its basic commitment to the Western scientific canon and over
the last decades science and engineering rule the roost. This is especially
true of the universities and colleges that are often "prisoners of their
own legacies…trapped in long-established procedures and norms"
and where legitimate concerns for quality and accountability approached
through the frames of the Enlightenment dream, has lead to an exaggerated
focus on metrics, the unintended consequences of which is to freeze
innovation and to overload teachers. ( (Kelley 2005) p. 212.
Increasingly, higher education as a socializing institution is seen
to be failing its students and the societies that support them. Smith
(Smith 2004) has suggested that in large measure this is because the
curriculum increasingly misses concerns of a generation already living
in a post-Enlightenment world, that our schools are organized for failure
and that our "industrial model" does not work for the 21 st century.
In the US, less than 50% of young people actually enter college and
only 50% of those leave with a completed degree. The figures for blacks
and Latinos are even more distressing. Even those who do graduate do
not develop the needed competencies for success in today’s work
force or for life. In particular, according to employers, they lack
the higher order mental capacities such as critical thinking, imagination,
analysis of ideas, creativity, expressive skills, and social skills
that are now required for success in the most jobs. This misalignment
between the curriculum within the academy and the world outside it,
will become all the more salient in the not so distant future in which
China and India-exposed to European thought relatively recently, and
after millennia of seeing the world through radically different frames-become
the dominant economies. Inadequate capacity to deal with the inevitable
uncertainties of life in a world where Eastern modes of thought have
equal standing along side Western, for instance, will leave the West
vulnerable, yet in the West, we continue to construct educational programs
as if no other forms of thought even exist, let alone have epistemic
legitimacy. If a student brings up questions from outside the Western
canon such as questions about talking to ancestral spirits or other
non-material beings, for instance, they are still likely to be ridiculed.
Singapore, in contrast, has already realized that to be successful in
the emerging future, a new commitment to mental formation of its young
is required where a far more expanded conception of consciousness guides
learning programs. In 1997, the Prime Minister launched the Thinking
Schools, Learning Nation initiative where emphasis is placed on
the ability to function in ambiguous situations, problem –solving
skills, creativity, flexibility, new literacies, and self-motivation
(1997, Ministry of Education, Singapore) (retrieved at http://www.moe.gov.sg/corporate/mission_statement.htm)
From these and many similar indicators, it seems obvious that we have
come to a place in our development where the inherited ways of thinking
and knowing are inadequate to the task at hand.
New minds for new times
In a recent presentation, Walter Anderson, quoted Stewart Brand, who
suggested that since we now possess the power to destroy worlds or to
transform them, "We are Gods, and we might as well get used to it."
(Anderson 2005) If this is true-and I assume he means by this that we
now have the kind of responsibility for the future of the planet that
was once thought to belong to beings of a higher order-- then it seems
to me urgent that we consider what kind of education this unprecedented
level of responsibility requires.
Questions arise. What would ensure that enough of us across the various
world cultures develop the capacity to hold not just two opposing ideas
at the same but many; and to resist the desire for easy certainty and
premature closure? What kind of socializing experiences can we invent
so we learn to see the world through new eyes and to take in its complexity
without becoming overwhelmed by it? What will help us stay "within the
tension of a question or an issue" and live in the messiness for longer
than is comfortable in order that creative new forms can emerge? What
do we need to learn to live in peace and with respect for those we have
been taught to see as the "other". In a rapidly moving technology landscape
what do we need to teach so that we develop "just in time" technical
and content experts who are willing to let go of obsolete information
and to continuously learn? What kinds of experiences would help people
steward our natural resources, protect the ecosystem that we are part
of while at the same time we feed the next few billions of additional
people? Can we reclaim lost capacities such as "dream time", communication
with animals, and connect to the spirits of a place?
Education for uncertain times .
The mental capacities aimed at in the Western canon reflect those
which generations of academicians believe are necessary for success
in the industrialized world--objectivity, reason and rationality, linear
logic, critical thinking, radical skepticism, secularism, a focus and
clarity, either/or dichotomies, sensitivity to difference, preference
for fixed categories and sharp boundaries, empiricism, analysis, quantification,
self-mastery, enough certainty for confident agency. Obviously, these
capacities remain highly relevant in the emerging new world, and need
to remain a focus of socialization attention-in schools and outside.
In the new world of uncertainty the Enlightenment culture does not evaporate,
but rather becomes subsumed within the new world view. The modern, science
dominated world will be with us for the foreseeable future, and we can
safely assume that as the developing nations enter the industrialized
world they will ensure that some part of the acculturation will involve
learning to think in these ways. (Schofer and Meyer 2005) .
But the new context of complexity and uncertainty calls for the cultivation
of levels of consciousness and habits mind that go far beyond this and
success will require new modes of consciousness. Let me briefly, and
with some trepidation describe what some of these dimensions of consciousness
beyond the modern might be.
We must learn, or rather relearn, to view ourselves
subjects in a world of other subjects. Though as part of the methodology
of science and technology subject-object thought has been immensely
productive, it has arguably also brought us to the edge of destruction.
With its arms-length relationship to the world, it has severed the deep
empathic links our ancestors had with the earth, and with their kin
and with other beings. We must reconnect. We need to cultivate intuition
and appreciation of the non-rational; not as substitutes for reason
and skepticism, but as a complement to them. We need to cultivate both/and
thinking, enhance our capacity for holistic perception, gestalt awareness,
network logic and pattern recognition. Along with a capacity to focus,
we need to be at home with fuzziness and a wide-angle view. We will
need to balance a fear that we have not enough information with the
problems of having too much. People will need to become comfortable
in a world of fluid boundaries, understanding the world as a continuous
web of relationally connected integrities. We will need to be able to
work at the places where knowledge domains and interests overlap and
interact. To make all this work, and to actually be at home in the creative
tensions posed by a world in transformation, we will need to make explicit
the importance of psychological self-care, emotional maturity and the
nourishment of the soul. This means we must recognize and honor
the important place in most people’s lives of what is called religion
If these are the ends to which we strive, what might be some of the
approaches to learning and knowing that could provide the means?
There are four holistically interrelated dimensions which educational
institutions must rethink-a new mission, new curriculum content, new
pedagogy, new modes of inquiry,
I New mission
Firstly, education at all levels needs to rethink its mission in light
of the emerging connected world. This mission must go beyond simply
providing workers for the global economy. We also need to make it a
high priority to cultivate the kinds of people-individuals and collectives-with
the necessary scope of awareness and level of mental development to
create sustainable systems in which human beings thrive and can co-exist
on a fragile planet. We must aim at an expansion of or evolution
of the modal consciousness of our species. Anything
less, is whistling past the cemetery.
Unless we evolve our ways of thinking to embrace a wider sense of
responsibility not only for self, or tribe, but for entire planetary
system including its people and other creatures, nature may well decide
that its experiment with homo sapiens sapiensshould
II New content
- It is obvious that science and emerging technologies will remain
crucial. Even in the unlikely event people say no to such galloping
technological innovation-which I doubt-we will still need the knowledge
to maintain our tools and toys and sustain and improve our quality
of life and our environment. But given the rapidity with which old
knowledge becomes obsolete and new discoveries are made, curriculum
must be more process focused and content needs to be "open source"
updated constantly in response to feedback from a changing world.
- New literacies must be added to the existing canon--eco-literacy,
information literacy, visual literacy, cultural literacy, spiritual
literacy, epistemological fluency are all core capacities in the new
- Curriculum must be globalized. This means more than simply learning
about other societies. As long as people beyond ones own national
boarders are considered "other", vital perspectives on human possibilities
will be hidden from view. Global citizens must enlarge who they think
of as "we". This will mean learning to put local knowledge into larger
perspectives, and bringing a global and multi-perspectival approach
to local knowledge.
- Given the inevitability of the "law of unintended consequences",
consideration of possible futures must become part of everyday thinking
not just of futurists but of everyone who must make decisions-in other
words most of us. Futures studies must become a core element of all
education and must include awareness of, and responsibility for the
short term, medium term and long term future.
III New pedagogies
Not only what we learn but how we learn will need to adapt to the
- A shift from a content focus to process focus. From a focus on
knowledge as a noun to a focus on learning as a verb. Expertise will
still be needed, but the ephemeral nature of information, and the
speed with which we must act, means that learning how to harvest information
from multiple sources as needed will become more important that accumulating
a body of knowledge. Discernment, critical and appreciative appraisal
of knowledge all become essential skills.
- Whole person pedagogies will have to be developed that involve
experiential activities where theory can emerge from practice.
- If we are to keep our heads in the dizzying world of contradiction
and complexity, "inner work" that leads to psychological maturity
needs to be part of all learning environments. Such mind development
approaches as yoga, psychotherapy, the arts, creativity, meditation,
contemplation, self-reflection, will be all be important elements
- Curriculum most make room for love, emotions, creativity, spirituality
and aesthetics, because these all influence how sense is made, how
priorities are set and how the world is interpreted. The Singaporean
education ministry recently mandated 30% reduction is "required curriculum"
to permit learners and teachers time to think and to process their
experience. They believe that if they are to remain innovative, this
will require openness to unpredictable, uncontrolled, and emergent
- More attention must be given to learning about human relationships,
group dynamics, and unconscious dimensions of behavior. Since most
projects will require collaboration with others who are different,
high levels of social competence become essential
- Education must be problem-embracing and case-based, and knowledge
and learning derived from attempts to solve real problems.
- We need to provide "cognitive apprenticeships" where learners can
be socialized into the tacit dimensions of emerging fields by those
who are already in them.
IV New modes of inquiry
- The context of complexity means that we must wean ourselves from
our overdependence on positivist science as the only acceptable form
of knowledge, and reclaim qualitative, more holistic and even contemplative
modes of inquiry.
- We need to emphasize systems inquiry not so that we can control
systems, because most of them are too complex to be controlled, but,
as Donella Meadows puts it, to "dance with them". (Meadows 2005)
- We need a new emphasis on pattern recognition, learning how to
distinguish "signal from noise" and how to navigate the exploding
world of "open source" information-Wikipedia, blogs etc.
- We need to go beyond quantification with expanded emphasis on the
human sciences such as phenomenology, hermeneutics, appreciative inquiry,
action learning, contemplation, scenaric inquiry, ethnography, reflective
practice, journalism, symbology, critical inquiry, discernment, meditation.
- We need to further develop approaches to what Nicolescu has called
transdisciplinary knowledge production (Nicolescu 2002; Nowotny 2003)
in recognition of the fact that in complex problems research is increasingly
conducted in its application and its application frequently involves
teams from many disciplines, as well as practitioners and lay people.
The kind of open process learning referred to as "Atelier learning"
(Brown 2005) retrieved at http://ctl.sdsu.edu/pict/JSB_digital_learning.doc)
can provide a safe space where errors are embraced and where practical
applicability trumps theory.
Age of Innovation
My colleague Eamonn Kelly has said that the world may be entering
a "Cambrian explosion" of innovation and experimentation in education
and learning (Kelley 2005) . We are gaining knowledge of the brain and
cognitive and emotional functions at an astonishing rate and this knowledge
is already being used in instructional design to enhance learning and
performance. We will see "transhuman" mind enhancement through drugs
and various implanted technological mental add-ons very soon (Hughes
Announcements about innovations in educational delivery models arrive
every day. Reports on new ventures--distance learning bringing classes
to remote Indian villages by satellite, new business-academy partnerships,
Barefoot academies, service learning that takes the academy into the
world, apprenticeships and corporate training that tack back and forth
between academy and workplace. The boundaries between the research universities
and commerce have all but disappeared, prestige institutions band together
to create joint programs to satisfy the massive appetite for learning
in societies like China and sub-Saharan Africa.
At lower grade levels, educational innovation abounds. Even though
hobbled by gargantuan bureaucracies and political wrangling , innovative
teachers are gradually introducing systems thinking, group techniques
such as "sharing circles" and creativity labs, classes in eco-literacy,
digital media production, contemplation (though you cannot call it meditation!)
and are increasingly employing the latest research from cognitive science
in their instructional design. Adventurous youngsters too, are also
part of the innovation--they are blogging, creating their own multimedia
of high quality, doing simulations, participating in online role playing
games with thousands of players worldwide. Many of these games expand
the imagination, requiring intense participation, long attention spans,
and the development of sophisticated mental strategies.
Humanity-or at least large parts of it-has faced such inflection points
before, where new forms of consciousness have been called for-the shift
from the medieval to the modern world for instance, and then later as
a result of the industrial revolution. Some societies have thrived,
and others have disappeared. The response to the present conceptual
crisis must be to embrace the adventure and harness the potential for
transformative learning that is implicit in such uncertain times. The
stakes are high: If we fail to learn fast enough the world could, as
it was in the 13 th century, be cast into a Mad Max world of
violence, craziness and despair. But on the other hand, and it is here
that we must aim our efforts, the potential exists that we might use
the challenge of these times to learn our way into the future.
If we can provide the supporting structures in education and other
socializing institutions to permit us to live in the creative tension
of unanswered questions and emergent possibilities, and if new or reclaimed
capacities become integrated into our existing forms of knowledge, we
may as Peat suggests, " discover orders beyond." This could
conceivably result in a new stage of human evolution. It seems to me
that this should be the goal of education for the global 21 st century.
- (2001). World Health Report 2001: Mental health:
New understanding, new hope.
- (2002). World Health Organization Report 2002.
- Anderson, W. T. (2005). Fragmegration, mystery and
unity: Some thoughts on the global brain. .
- Brown, J. S. (2005). "Learning in the Digital
Age (21st Century):
- Catalyzing Creativity by Artful Making &
- by Honoring the Vernacular of Today’s Students
retrieved at http://ctl.sdsu.edu/pict/JSB_digital_learning.doc."
- Hughes, J. (2005). Changing Our Minds: Electronic
and Chemical Modification of Cognition and Emotion. General Assembly
of the World Academy of Arts and Sciences, Zagreb, Croatia. 14 th
-17 th November.
- Kegan, R. (1994). In over our heads: The mental
demands of modern life. Cambridge, Harvard University Press.
- Kelley, E. (2005). Powerful times: Rising to the
challenge of our uncertain world. Upper SAddle River, N.J., Wharton
- Meadows, D. (2005). Dancing with systems. . Ecological
literacy: Educating our children for a sustainable world. M. K. S.
a. Z. Barlow. San Francisco, Sieraa Books.
- Michael, D. N. (1999). "Some observations regarding
a missing elephant." Journal of Humanistic Psychology.
- Nicolescu, B. (2002). Manifesto of Transdisciplinarity.
Albany, State UNiversity of New York Press.
- Nowotny, H. (2003) The potential of transdisciplinarity.
Interdisciplines (retreived from: http://www.interdisciplines.org/interdisciplinarity/papers/5/printable/discussions)
- Schofer, E. and J. W. Meyer (2005). "The world
wide expansion of higher education." Center on Democracy, Development,
and the Rule of Law. 32.
- Shweder, R. A. and E. Bourne (1982). Does the concept
of the person vary cross-culturally? Cultural concepts of mental health
and therapy. A. J. Marsela and G. White. Boston, Reidel: 97-137.
- Smith, P. (2004). The quiet crisis: How higher education
is failing America. Bolton. MA., Anker Publising Co.
I use the word
"cosmology" to refer to the totality of world view, narrative
frames, symbolic landscape, meaning frames, language, logical forms,
cognitive schemas, and epistemologies that provide the taken-for-granted
assumptions of life in that society.