The World Health Organization’s

Skills for Health
Skills-based health education including life skills:
An important component of a Child-Friendly/Health-Promoting School
PREFACE .......................................................................................................................................................v
1. INTRODUCTION ...........................................................................................................................................1
1.1. International support for school health....................................................................................................1
1.2. Why was this document prepared? ........................................................................................................2
1.3. For whom was this document prepared? ..............................................................................................2
1.4. What are skills-based health education and life skills? ..........................................................................3
1.5. What is the focus of this document?......................................................................................................4
2. UNDERSTANDING SKILLS-BASED HEALTH EDUCATION AND LIFE SKILLS ..........................................6
2.1. Content...................................................................................................................................................7
2.2. Teaching and learning methods for skills-based health education ........................................................13
3. THEORIES AND PRINCIPLES SUPPORTING SKILLS-BASED HEALTH EDUCATION ....................................19
3.1. Child and Adolescent Development Theories........................................................................................19
3.2. Multiple Intelligences ............................................................................................................................20
3.3. Social Learning Theory or Social Cognitive Theory................................................................................20
3.4. Problem-Behaviour Theory ....................................................................................................................21
3.5. Social Influence Theory and Social Inoculation Theory..........................................................................21
3.6. Cognitive Problem Solving ....................................................................................................................22
3.7. Resilience Theory .................................................................................................................................22
3.8. Theory of Reasoned Action and Health Belief Model ..........................................................................23
3.9. Stages of Change Theory or Transtheoretical Model ............................................................................24
4. EVALUATION EVIDENCE AND LESSONS LEARNED................................................................................25
4.1. Major research evidence concerning the effectiveness of skills-based health education......................25
4.2. Which factors contribute to effective programmes? ............................................................................27
4.3. Which factors can create barriers to effective skills-based health education?......................................30
5. PRIORITY ACTIONS FOR QUALITY AND SCALE ......................................................................................32
5.1. Going to scale .....................................................................................................................................33
5.2. Skills-based health education as part of comprehensive school health................................................34
5.3. Effective Placement within the curriculum ..........................................................................................36
5.4. Using existing materials better..............................................................................................................41
5.5. Linking content to behavioural outcomes ............................................................................................42
5.6. Professional Development for Teachers and support teams ................................................................45
6. PLANNING AND EVALUATING SKILLS-BASED HEALTH EDUCATION ..................................................49
6.1. Situation analysis .................................................................................................................................49
6.2. Participation and ownership of all stakeholders....................................................................................50
6.3. Programme goals and objectives ..........................................................................................................51
6.4. Advocating for your programme............................................................................................................51
6.5. Evaluating Skills-based Health Education..............................................................................................53
6.5.1. Process Evaluation ...............................................................................................................................54
6.5.2. Outcome Evaluation ..............................................................................................................................55
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