Letture sul conflitto e le diverse possibili soluzioni 1 | 2

Meaning of Intractability
              Nature of Intractability
              Characteristics of Intractable Conflicts
        Settlement, Resolution, Management, and Transformation: An Explanation of Terms
        Stable Peace
        Conflicts and Disputes
        Conflict Stages
              Latent Conflict Stage
              Conflict Emergence Stage
              Escalation and Institutionalization Stages

              Failed Peacemaking Efforts Stage
              Hurting Stalemate Stage
              De-escalation Stage
              Negotiation Stage
              Settlement Stage
              Peacebuilding and Reconciliation Stage
Costs and Benefits of Intractable Conflict
                       War Crimes
                       Interpersonal Conflict and Violence
              Relationships Damaged / Destroyed
        ~ Benefits of Intractable Conflict
Underlying Causes of Intractable Conflict
        Factors Shaping the Course of Intractable Conflict
        Intolerable Moral Differences
        Justice Conflicts
              Human Rights Violations
        Unmet Human Needs
        High-Stakes Distributional Issues
              Rich / Poor Conflicts
        Identity Issues
              Post-Colonial (Aftermath of Colonization)
        ~ Complexity
              Complex Adaptive Systems
Parties to Intractable Conflict
        Disputants (Stakeholders or First Parties)
              Leaders and Leadership
              Stakeholder Representatives
              Within-Party Differences
        Intermediary Roles
              Formal Intermediaries
              Informal Intermediaries
              Bridge Builders
              Third Siders
Culture and Conflict -- Overview
        Culture-Based Negotiation Styles
        Cross-Cultural Communication
              Communication Tools for Understanding Cultural Differences
              Cultural and Worldview Frames
Social Psychological Dimensions of Conflict
        Frames / Framing / Reframing
              Cultural Frames
              Identity Frames
              Stereotypes / Characterization Frames
                       Enemy Images
              Process Frames
              Competitive and Cooperative Approaches to Conflict
                       Game Theory
              Into-the-Sea Framing
              Fact Frames
              Worst-Case / Loss-Oriented Frames
        Managing Interpersonal Trust and Distrust
        Guilt and Shame
        Sacrifice Trap
        Cognitive Dissonance
Interpersonal / Small-Scale Communication
        Channels of Communication
        Cross-Cultural Communication
              Communication Tools for Understanding Cultural Differences
        In-Depth Communication
              Creating Safe Spaces for Communication
              Empathic Listening
              Narratives and Story-Telling
        Escalation-Limiting Language
              I-Messages and You-Messages
        Establishment of Personal Relationships
Large-Scale Communication
        Mass Media
              Media Strategies
        ~ Constituent Communication / Communication Scale-Up
        Factual Disputes
              Technical Facts
              Historical Facts
              Legal Facts
              Land and Property Rights in the Peace Process
        Distinguishing Facts from Values
        Obtaining Trustworthy Information
              Truth Commissions
              Joint Fact-Finding
              Neutral Fact-Finding
              Oversight / Review Committee
        Communicating Facts
Escalation and Related Processes
              Constructive Escalation
Limiting Escalation / De-escalation
        Countering Intractability
        Trust and Trust Building
              Trust in Mediation
        Confidence-Building Measures
        De-escalating Gestures
        Rumor Control
        ~ Cooling Off Periods
        Safe Havens
        Dealing with Extremists
              Humanizing Extremists
        Arms Control and Non-Proliferation
              Military Force Restructuring
              Buffer Zones
              Arms Embargo
              Mobilization Slowing
Understanding Power
        ~ Power Options
              Coercive Power
                       Revenge and the Backlash Effect
                       ~ Force Shortcuts
                             Grievance Procedures
                             Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR)
              Exchange Power
               Integrative Power
              ~ Power Strategies Mix
        Power Inequities
              Coalition Building
Principles of Justice and Fairness
        Types of Justice
              Restorative Justice
              Retributive Justice
              Procedural Justice
              Distributive Justice
              International Law
              Jus ad Bellum
              Jus in Bello
              Human Rights Protection
Intervention Processes
        Peaceful Change Strategies
        Conflict Assessment
              Negotiation Theory
                       Win-Win / Win-Lose / Lose-Lose Situations
                       Positive-Sum / Zero-Sum / Negative-Sum Situations
                       Best Alternative to a Negotiated Agreement (BATNA)
                       Zone of Possible Agreement (ZOPA)
              Negotiation Strategies
                       Integrative or Interest-Based Bargaining
                       Distributive Bargaining
                       Positional Bargaining
                       Creating and Claiming Value
                       Culture-Based Negotiation Styles
              Problem-Solving Mediation
              Transformative Mediation
              International Mediation and Intractable Conflict
              ~ Mediation Strategies and Techniques
                       Convening Processes
                       Ripeness-Promoting Strategies
                       Action-Forcing Mechanisms
                       Sequencing Strategies and Tactics
                       Focusing on Commonalities
                       Option Identification
                       Shuttle Diplomacy
                       Reality Testing
        Consensus Building
                       Policy Dialogue
        Problem Solving Workshops
        Hybrid Processes
        Peace Processes
                       Preventive Diplomacy and International Violence Prevention
                       Protective Accompaniment
                                      ~ Diplomacy
                                           Track I Diplomacy
                                           Track II (Citizen) Diplomacy
                                           Track I - Track II Cooperation
                                           Multi-Track Diplomacy
                                      Military Intervention
                                      Hierarchical Intervention Levels
                                           Elite Leadership
                                           Midlevel Leaders
                                           Grassroots Leaders
                                      Stable Peace
                                      International War Crimes Tribunals
                                      Apology and Forgiveness
                                      Trauma Healing
                                           The Transformation of Labor-Management Conflicts
                                      Joint Projects
                                      Democracy and Conflict Management
                                      Addressing Underlying Causes of Conflict
                                      ~ Role of NGOs
                                      Role of IGOs
                                      Civil Society
        Intervention Coordination
        Evaluation and Assessment of Interventions
              Formative Evaluation
              Action Evaluation in Theory and Practice
~ Peace Agreements
              ~ Substantive Provisions of Peace Agreements
                       Addressing Injustice
                       Security Guarantees
                       Social Structural Change
                       Reconstruction Programs
                       Disarmament / Demobilization / Reintegration of Ex-Combatants
                       Humanitarian Aid and Development Assistance
                       ~ Self-Determination Procedures
                       Power Sharing
                       Compensation Programs
              ~ Procedural Components of Peace Agreements
                       Designing New Dispute Resolution Systems
                             Grassroots Process Design
                       Monitoring of Agreements


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