Nonaka & Hirotaka Takeuk)
Nonaka and Takeuk's highly
influential book, The Knowledge Creating Company (1995) is released.
Their "spiral process" theory of knowledge creation is based upon a
spiral movement between explicit and tacit knowledge.
The Knowledge Spiral
Nonaka and Takeuk theorized
that the creation of knowledge is the result of a continuous cycle of
four integrated processes: externalization, internalization, combination,
and socialization. These four knowledge conversion mechanisms are mutually
complementary and interdependent that change according to the demands
of context and sequence:
- Externalization -
from Tacit to Explicit : Articulate "conceptual" tacit knowledge
explicitly through the use of of such techniques as metaphors and
- Combination - from
Explicit to Explicit: Manipulating explicit "systemic" knowledge
through such techniques as sorting and combining. For this to occur,
the knowledge elements must "fit together." See LATCH.
- Internalization -
from Explicit to Tacit: This is "learning by doing" (operational
knowledge) and sharing mental models and technical know-how.
- Socialization - from
Tacit to Tacit: Sharing experiences with others (sympathized knowledge).
Example: It is quite resistant to codification.