(A) ORIGINS OF RELIGION
(A.1) Primordial Notions Of Religion
It is not possible to define religion, to say what it "is,"
the start of a presentation such as this. Definition can be
attempted, if at all, only at the conclusion of the study. The
"essence" of religion is not even our concern, as we make
our task to study the conditions and effects of a particular
type of social action. The external courses of religious
behavior are so diverse that an understanding of this behavior can
only be achieved from the viewpoint of the subjective experiences,
notion, and purposes of the individuals concerned--in short, from
the viewpoint of the religious behavior's "meaning."
(A.1.b) This-worldly Orientation
The most elementary forms of religiously or magically
motivated action are oriented to this world. "That it may go
well with you . . . And that you may prolong your days upon
the earth"  shows the motivation of religiously or
magically commanded actions. Even human sacrifices, although uncommon
among urban peoples, were performed in the Phoenician maritime cities
without any other-worldly expectations whatsoever. Furthermore, religiously
or magically motivated action is relatively rational action, especially
in its earliest forms. It follows rules of experience, though it is
not necessarily action in accordance with means-end rationality.
Rubbing will elicit sparks from pieces of wood, and in like fashion
the mimetic actions of a "magician" will evoke rain from
the heavens. The sparks resulting from twirling the wooden sticks
are as much a "magical" effect as the rain evoked by the
manipulations of the rainmaker.